The concept of “equivalence” and the theory of translation equivalence and english to bangla translation are rightfully considered one of the most difficult sections of modern translation studies. Translators of the 20th century experienced difficulties due to the lack of terminology in translation studies. The term “equivalence” (from the English equivalent – “equivalent”) was introduced in order to describe the relationship between the original and the translation. The main purpose of using translation equivalence is to show how well the translation text matches (or does not match) the original text.
Today there are three points of view on translation equivalence. Some believe that equivalence does not exist in principle, and there will always be some omissions in the translation. Others are of the opinion that in order to call a translation equivalent, it is sufficient to preserve the main meaning of the text. But still others believe that equivalence is ambiguous and for each text it is achieved in different ways.
Based on this, 5 levels of achieving equivalence are distinguished, which are similar to a certain pyramid.
Equivalence at the level of the communication goal. In other words, at this level, the main thing is to convey the main meaning, completely changing its content. This level is used only when the literal translation evokes in the recipient the wrong emotions and associations that are expected, for example, when translating phraseological units.
Equivalence at the level of describing the situation. In addition to the purpose of communication, the situation described in the sentence is preserved here, but when translating it, more familiar words for native speakers of the target language are used.
Equivalence at the level of utterance. At this level of the pyramid, the concepts with the help of which the situation is described are also preserved, but it remains impossible to preserve the syntactic structure of the sentence.
Equivalence at the message (text) level. At this level, the entire syntactic structure of the sentence is almost completely preserved, but with minor deviations in its lexical composition.
Equivalence at the level of linguistic signs. This is the last level of the pyramid, in which the translation text is completely parallel to the original text in its syntactic and lexical structures.
From the foregoing it follows that a translation can be considered equivalent if it corresponds to at least the first level of achieving equivalence.